In the early stage of fire, the fire is small, and the correct use of fire extinguishing equipment can eliminate the fire in the initial stage, so that the small fire does not become a catastrophe, thus avoiding major losses. So every employee must be skilled in the use of fire extinguishers, in order to put out small fires in a timely and efficient manner at the beginning of the fire, so that it does not become a major disaster. Fire extinguishers are placed in almost all units or homes, but not many people will really use them. For example, in many fire fighting places exposed some employees will not use the fire extinguisher joke: some will foam fire extinguisher on the shoulder, due to the reaction of the fire extinguisher inside and outside the drug to produce foam, to be rushed to the fire, foam has been sprayed; some will throw the whole fire extinguisher to the fire; some do not know how to open, dry anxiety can not open, that is, only know how to use the fire extinguisher is not good, but also to master the best fire fighting Effect of the spraying skills.
There are many types of fire extinguishers, so read the manual of the fire extinguisher carefully before use to see which type of fire it applies to and related precautions. The use of fire extinguishers is similar, in summary, “a pull, two take, three pressure”, that is, pull off the safety pin, pick up the nozzle to the source of the fire, stand to the wind or side wind direction, press out the extinguishing agent. The use of fire extinguishers according to the type of fire to choose the applicable fire extinguishers, otherwise it will be counterproductive.
General fire extinguishers are marked with the type of fire and fire extinguishing level of the label. For example, A, B, etc., the user will be able to immediately identify the fire extinguisher is suitable for fighting which type of fire. Foam fire extinguishers are generally able to fight A, B fires, when the electrical fire, the power was cut off, you can also use foam fire extinguishers to fight. Clear water extinguishers are suitable for small fires of category A. Dry powder fire extinguishers are suitable for fighting B, C fires; carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are suitable for fighting B, C fires. Halogenated (1211) extinguisher
Fire extinguishers are mainly used to put out fires in flammable liquids, electrical equipment and precision instruments and machine rooms. This type of fire extinguisher contains no corrosive extinguishing agent, does not leave traces of fire extinguishing, the effect is also better. General portable fire extinguishers with the spraying time of its contents within a minute, the actual effective fire extinguishing time of only 10 to 20 seconds, so in general must be used in accordance with the instructions to properly grasp the use of the method, otherwise the fire can not be used, miss the time to extinguish the fire. Also known as BC dry powder extinguisher
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers use the vapor pressure of the liquid carbon dioxide filled inside them to spray out the carbon dioxide fire. Because the carbon dioxide extinguishing agent has a fire does not leave traces, and has certain characteristics of electrical insulation, so it is more suitable for extinguishing 600 volts or less of electrically charged appliances, valuable equipment. Books, information, instruments and meters, a small amount of grease and electrical appliances below 600V and other places of incipient fire. General flammable liquid fires can also be used.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher according to the filling volume: MT2 type, MT3 type, MTZ5 type, MTZ7 type four kinds of specifications. Among them, MT2 and MT3 are mostly handwheel type mt5 and MTZ7 are mostly duckbill type.
MT type portable carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, mainly by the barrel opening and closing valve and spraying barrel composition. The barrel is made of seamless steel pipe stewing, with high pressure strength opening and closing valve is made of cast copper, with good sealing performance. In the lower part of the opening and closing valve there is a siphon tube, 3-4cm from the bottom of the barrel at the end of the tube cut into a 30° slant. The safety film is installed on the valve, when the temperature exceeds 50℃ or the pressure exceeds 18Mpa, it will rupture itself and release carbon dioxide.
In the use of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, the fire extinguisher mentioned or carried to the fire, in about 5 meters from the burning object, put down the extinguisher, pull out the safety pin, one hand holding the handle at the root of the horn barrel, the other hand holding the pressure handle of the opening and closing valve, no spray hose of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, the horn barrel should be wrenched upward 70 ~ 90 degrees, when using, can not directly grab the outer wall of the horn barrel or metal connection tube, in order to prevent frostbite.
To extinguish the fire, aim the fire extinguisher nozzle at the root of the fire source, open the valve and the carbon dioxide will be ejected immediately. For duckbill type, open the safety device with your right hand, hold the wooden handle of the horn and press down the duckbill with your left hand, carbon dioxide will be sprayed out; for handwheel type, rotate the handwheel counterclockwise, carbon dioxide will be sprayed out to extinguish the fire.
When the combustible liquid is flowing burning, the user should be carbon dioxide fire extinguisher jet from near to far to the flame spray; if the combustible liquid in the container burning, the user should lift the horn barrel, from the upper side of the container to the burning container spray, but not the direct impact of carbon dioxide jets on the surface of the combustible liquid to prevent the combustible liquid out of the container and expand the fire, causing difficulties in extinguishing. When using carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, used outdoors, should choose to spray in the upwind direction, used in a narrow indoor space, the operator should quickly leave after the fire to prevent asphyxiation.
Fire extinguishers in the process of use, continuous spraying to prevent re-ignition of embers; when fighting fires outdoors, can not be used against the wind, and not allowed to use upside down, the spraying time should be short, use to quickly, to prevent frostbite hands.
Dry powder fire extinguisher is filled with dry powder, is a high-pressure carbon dioxide gas as the power, spray dry powder extinguishing agent fire extinguishing equipment. It is very widely used, except for gas and radioactive class is not applicable, other fires such as wood, electrical appliances, oil, rubber, plastic, etc. are applicable.
More varieties of dry powder extinguishing agent, so the fire extinguisher according to the name of the internal charge of different thousand powder extinguishing agent, called sodium bicarbonate dry powder extinguisher, ammonium phosphate dry powder extinguisher. Amino dry powder fire extinguishers. Because the sodium bicarbonate dry powder is only suitable for extinguishing B, C fire, so also known as BC thousand powder fire extinguishers. Ammonium phosphate dry powder can be applied to A, B, C class fire, so also known as ABC dry powder fire extinguishers.
Dry powder fire extinguishers to be placed in the vicinity of the protected object and dry and ventilated, easy to access place. To prevent moisture and sunlight exposure. Check once every six months whether the dry powder is damp and caked; weigh and check the weight of a carbon dioxide cylinder, if the weight of carbon dioxide is less than 9/10 of the original weight, the amount of gas should be replenished. To strictly prevent the leakage of air. Powder should be refilled and inflated after each use. Every 5 years, carry out 1.5 times the design pressure hydrostatic test.
When using external MF dry powder fire extinguisher, one hand holds the nozzle, the other hand lifts the lifting ring, hold the lifting handle and aim the nozzle at the root of the fire. Specific use of the following methods in case of fire, the fire extinguisher will be pushed to the fire site near the rear to the source of fire (outdoor should be placed in the upwind direction). At this point, first remove the gun, expand the powder tube (note that there must be no twist phenomenon), and then lift the inlet pressure lever, so that carbon dioxide into the storage tank. When the table pressure rises to 0.7 ~ 1.1MPa (0.8 ~ 0.9MPa when the fire fighting effect is particularly good), put down the pressure bar to stop the gas. Then, two hand-held gun, stand firmly on both feet, the muzzle of the gun aimed at the root of the edge of the flame, pull the switch, the dry powder sprayed out, from near to far to extinguish the fire. When pulling up the lifting ring, dry powder in the role of carbon dioxide gas pressure nozzle shot out, forming a thick cloud of powder mist, the fire will be extinguished. When fighting oil fires on the ground, shoot flat, swing from left to right, from near to far
The fire can be put out by swinging from side to side, from near to far, and advancing rapidly, taking care to prevent backfire combustion. Before use, first of all, up and down a few times to make the dry powder loose in advance, and then pull up the lifting ring, spray powder. After extinguishing the fire must be carefully removed from the tube, the remaining powder inside the gun.
There is also a cart type dry powder fire extinguisher, suitable for fighting flammable liquids, combustible gases and electrical equipment of the initial fire. This fire extinguisher is easy to move, simple to operate, good fire extinguishing effect.
Usage: push the dry powder cart to the fire, stop at a place 10 meters from the burning object, pull out the safety pin, one person with the palm of the hand to press the gas supply valve, one person put flat powder spray hose, hand-held gun constantly leaning forward to the flame spray.
Foam fire extinguishers contain the extinguishing agent is foam. Foam and there are two kinds of chemical foam and air foam.
Chemical foam fire extinguisher is filled with aluminum sulfate aqueous solution and sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution, and then add the right amount of protein foam liquid. If a small amount of fluorine surfactant is added, it can enhance the fluidity of the foam and improve the fire extinguishing ability, so it is called high-efficiency chemical
Foam fire extinguisher is suitable for fighting all kinds of oil fires, as well as fires caused by solid combustible materials such as wood fiber and rubber.
Foam fire extinguishers need to be used when the extinguisher is mentioned about 6 meters away from the burning material, pull out the safety pin. Cover the nozzle with your right hand, hold the edge of the bottom of the tube with your left hand, turn the extinguisher upside down and shake it up and down vertically a few times, then let go of the nozzle, grab the tube ears with your right hand and hold the edge of the bottom of the tube with your left hand to put out the fire.
In addition to these major fire extinguishers, there are some other types of fire extinguishers. Such as acid and alkali fire extinguishers, this type of fire extinguisher is filled with industrial sulfuric acid and sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution. Halothane fire extinguisher, this type of fire extinguisher filled with fire extinguishing agent is halogenated extinguishing agent, this type of fire extinguishing agent more varieties, and China only develop two, the most important is difluoro a chlorine a bromo methane, referred to as “1211 fire extinguisher”. As the fire extinguishing agent on the ozone layer destructive force, China has stopped producing “1211 extinguishing agent” in 2005.
Fire extinguishers to do with the use of filling, and from time to time check the dry powder, foam fire extinguishers in the bottle air pressure indication, such as the expiration date or the existence of leaks and no air pressure, to immediately replace or filling pressure.